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Physiological ligands of PPARs in inflammation and lipid homeostasis
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that are involved in many physiological processes, such as inflammation and energy homeostasis. In general, PPARs must be activated by ligands to stimulate the expression of their target genes. These agonists can be synthetic molecules, such as drugs used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, or natural physiological ligands, such as fatty acids and eicosanoids. Although recent work has uncovered a surprisingly broad variety of natural molecules capable of activating PPARs, relatively little is known about their mode of action in an in vivo physiological context. The action of physiological ligands in situations of food deprivation and abundance, especially with respect to their intervention in the inflammatory response, and in both lipid homeostasis and inflammation resolution will be reviewed.
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