A Master's thesis.
Master (thesis) (master)
Identification et caractérisation de gènes suppresseurs de tumeurs dans le glioblastome
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Number of pages
Introduction: Glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV glioma) is the most frequent and most¦malignant primary tumor of the brain. With a mean survival of 15 months despite¦multidisciplinary management combining surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the prognosis¦is poor. Different studies measured a down-regulation of Wnt Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1)¦expression in a majority of gliobastoma due to genetic and epigenetic regulation. Recently,¦a focus on chromosome 12 identified WIF1 as a potential tumor suppressor gene. In¦previous results, transfected glioblastoma cells with ectopic expression of WIF1 had a¦decreased growth rate and adopted a senescence-like phenotype. In this report, we first¦investigated the effect of WIF1 re-expression in glioblastoma cell lines to see if Wnt¦inhibition by WIF1 can lead to senescence. To look further, we assessed p21 and c-Myc¦expression. p21 has a key role in senescence onset and is directly inhibited by c-Myc,¦itself a target of Wnt-pathway. We thus looked if a variation of expression of these genes is¦triggered by WIF1 activity. Finally, as autophagy is thought to play a role in senescence¦onset, we analyzed the expression of different autophagy genes. We therefore looked for¦an association between autophagy activity and senescent phenotype in WIF1-¦overexpressing cell lines.¦Methods: WIF1-overexpressing clones were selected after transfection of stable¦glioblastoma cell lines. Analysis were made through quantitative Polymerase Chain¦Reaction (qPCR), Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and histochemistry.¦IGFBP7 and ALDH1A3 have been selected to reflect senescence. ATG5, ATG7 and ULK3¦have been selected to reflect autophagy activity.¦Results: Using FACS analysis, we found a higher percentage of large cells with increased¦granularity amongst WIF1-overexpressing cell lines, which are characteristics of¦senescence. In addition, histochemistry showed a higher percentage of multi-nucleated,¦beta-galactosidase positive cells in the same cell lines. An increased expression of genes¦associated with senescence was found as well. All characteristics were correlated with¦levels of WIF1 expression. We did not find any association between p21 and WIF1¦expression. No correlation between WIF1 and c-Myc expression was noticed either. In one¦of the two cell lines analyzed, the expression of autophagy genes showed some¦correlation with expression of WIF1 and expression of genes associated with senescence.¦Discussion: After investigations and characterizations on multiple levels, we have¦evidence for a senescence phenotype upon WIF1-overexpressing cell lines. This gives a¦role to Wnt pathway in the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma. Further experiments are¦required to investigate how Wnt inhibition leads to senescence. The role of autophagy in¦our senescent cells is here still unclear. Some correlations can be found, letting us think¦that there is indeed some involvement of autophagy. However, it is yet to soon to explain¦this relationship. Further experiments are required again to confirm the preliminary results¦and analyze the variations of autophagy activity within time.
glioblastoma, WIF1, senescence, autophagy, Wnt pathway
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