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Visualization of nutritive perfusion following tourniquet ischemia in arterial pattern skin flaps: effect of vasoactive medication.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Date de publication
We present an experimental model that makes it possible to investigate the effects of global ischemia and reperfusion on microvascular perfusion and viability of ill-proportioned (poorly designed) arterial pattern skin flaps in hairless mice. Skin flaps were created on the ears of hairless mice by dissecting two of three nutritional vessel bundles at the ear base. Under these nonischemic conditions, 19 percent of the total flap area went on to necrose (as a result of poor flap design). Global ischemia was induced to the flap tissue for 6 hours with a tourniquet clamp directly after flap incision. The extension of perfused tissue area and flap viability were assessed at the microcirculatory level by intravital video microscopy at 1, 3, 6, and 18 hours and 7 days after reperfusion in animals treated with either normal saline (control) or the vasoactive drug buflomedil hydrochloride (3 mg/kg of body weight per day, i.v., starting 4 hours prior to flap creation and continued at daily intervals until the end of the experiments). In untreated animals (n = 18), 1 hour after clamp release we observed reperfusion of 39.55 percent (38.5/44.9) of total flap area. Reperfusion remained unchanged within the following 5 hours. Within the next 12 hours, reperfused flap area was dramatically reduced to 21.9 percent (15.1/58.4). Seven days thereafter, only 18.8 percent (10.9/42.2) of total flap area remained viable. In contrast, we found in buflomedil-treated animals (n = 18) that 57.3 percent (53.5/62.9) of the total flap tissue was reperfused within the first hour after clamp release (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Animals, Ear, External/blood supply, Male, Mice, Mice, Hairless, Microcirculation/drug effects, Microcirculation/physiology, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use, Reperfusion Injury/pathology, Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control, Surgical Flaps/methods, Surgical Flaps/pathology, Tourniquets, Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
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