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Activity of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement loaded with daptomycin, vancomycin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms
Title of the conference
71e Congrès Annuel de la Société Suisse d'Orthopédie et de Traumatologie (SSOT)
Lausanne, Suisse, 22-24 juin 2011
Swiss Medical Weekly
Background: Local antibiotics may significantly improve the treatmentoutcome in bone infection without systemic toxicity. For impregnationof polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), gentamicin, vancomycin and/orclindamycin are currently used. A new lipopeptid antibiotic,daptomycin, is a promising candidate for local treatment due to itsspectrum against staphylococci and enterococci (including multiresistantstrains), and concentration-dependent rapid bactericidalactivity. We investigated activity of antibiotic-loaded PMMA againstStaphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using an ultra-sensitive bacterialheat detection method (microcalorimetry).Methods: Staphylococcus epidermidis (strain RP62A, susceptibleto daptomycin, vancomycin and gentamicin) at concentration 106bacteria/ml was incubated with 2 g-PMMA block (Palacos, HeraeusMedical, Hanau, Germany) in 25 ml tryptic soy broth (TSB)supplemented with calcium. PMMA blocks were preloaded withdaptomycin, vancomycin and gentamicin each at 2 g/40 mg (= 100 mg/block) PMMA. After 72 h-incubation at 35 °C under static conditions,PMMA blocks were rinsed in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) 5times and transferred in 4 ml-microcalorimetry ampoule filled with 1 mlTSB. Bacterial heat production, which is proportional to the quantityof biofilm on PMMA surface, was measured by isothermalmicrocalorimetry. The detection time was calculated as the time untilthe heat flow reached 20 microwatt.Results: Biomechanical properties did not differ between antibioticloadedand non-loaded PMMA blocks. The mean detection time (±standard deviation) of bacterial heat was 6.5 ± 0.4 h for PMMA withoutantibiotics (negative control), 13.5 ± 4.6 h for PMMA with daptomycin,14.0 ± 4.1 h for PMMA with vancomycin and 5.0 ± 0.4 h for PMMAwith gentamicin.Conclusion: Our data indicates that antibiotics at 2 g/40 mg PMMAdid not change the biomechanical properties of bone cement. Daptomycinand vancomycin were more active than gentamicin against S.epidermidis biofilms when all tested at 2 g/40 mg PMMA. In the nextstep, higher concentrations of daptomycin and their elution kineticneeds to be determined to optimize its antibiofilm activity before usingin the clinical setting.
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