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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune defenses against bacterial sepsis.
The Journal of infectious diseases
187 Suppl 2
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't - Publication Status: ppublish
Macrophages are essential effector cells of innate immunity that play a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Mediators released by activated macrophages orchestrate innate and adaptive immune host responses. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes and macrophages constitutively express large amounts of MIF, which is rapidly released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines. MIF exerts potent proinflammatory activities and is an important cytokine of septic shock. Recent investigations of the mechanisms by which MIF regulates innate immune responses to endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria indicate that MIF acts by modulating the expression of Toll-like receptor 4, the signal-transducing molecule of the lipopolysaccharide receptor complex. Given its role in innate immune responses to bacterial infections, MIF is a novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients with septic shock.
Animals, Bacterial Infections, Bacterial Toxins, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Inflammation, Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors, Macrophages, Sepsis
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