Article: article from journal or magazin.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with beta-lactams for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) is an injectable streptogramin active against most gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In experimental endocarditis, however, Q-D was less efficacious against MRSA isolates constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogram B (C-MLS(B)) than against MLS(B)-susceptible isolates. To circumvent this problem, we used the checkerboard method to screen drug combinations that would increase the efficacy of Q-D against such bacteria. beta-Lactams consistently exhibited additive or synergistic activity with Q-D. Glycopeptides, quinolones, and aminoglycosides were indifferent. No drugs were antagonistic. The positive Q-D-beta-lactam interaction was independent of MLS(B) or beta-lactam resistance. Moreover, addition of Q-D at one-fourth the MIC to flucloxacillin-containing plates decreased the flucloxacillin MIC for MRSA from 500 to 1,000 mg/liter to 30 to 60 mg/liter. Yet, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations were not synergistic in bactericidal tests. Rats with aortic vegetations were infected with two C-MLS(B)-resistant MRSA isolates (isolates AW7 and P8) and were treated for 3 or 5 days with drug dosages simulating the following treatments in humans: (i) Q-D at 7 mg/kg two times a day (b.i.d.) (a relatively low dosage purposely used to help detect positive drug interactions), (ii) cefamandole at constant levels in serum of 30 mg/liter, (iii) cefepime at 2 g b.i.d., (iv) Q-D combined with either cefamandole or cefepime. Any of the drugs used alone resulted in treatment failure. In contrast, Q-D plus either cefamandole or cefepime significantly decreased valve infection compared to the levels of infection for both untreated controls and those that received monotherapy (P < 0.05). Importantly, Q-D prevented the growth of highly beta-lactam-resistant MRSA in vivo. The mechanism of this beneficial drug interaction is unknown. However, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations might be useful for the treatment of complicated infections caused by multiple organisms, including MRSA.
Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Cefamandole/blood, Cefamandole/therapeutic use, Cephalosporins/blood, Cephalosporins/therapeutic use, Disease Models, Animal, Drug Resistance, Microbial, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Drug Therapy, Combination/blood, Drug Therapy, Combination/therapeutic use, Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy, Endocarditis, Bacterial/metabolism, Humans, Lincosamides, Macrolides, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Rats, Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy, Staphylococcal Infections/metabolism, Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects, Time Factors, Virginiamycin/blood, Virginiamycin/pharmacology
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