Article: article from journal or magazin.
Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.
Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.
Bufo viridis, clonal transmission, genome reorganization, phylogeny, polyploidy, sex chromosomes
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