Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Physiopathology of the embryonic heart (with special emphasis on hypoxia and reoxygenation).
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie
The adaptative response of the developing heart to adverse intrauterine environment such as reduced O2 delivery can result in alteration of gene expression with short- and long-term consequences including adult cardiovascular diseases. The tolerance of the developing heart of acute or chronic oxygen deprivation, its capacity to recover during reperfusion and the mechanisms involved in reoxygenation injury are still under debate. Indeed, the pattern of response of the immature myocardium to hypoxia-reoxygenation differs from that of the adult. This review deals with the structural and metabolic characteristics of the embryonic heart and the functional consequences of hypoxia and reoxygenation. The relative contribution of calcium and sodium overload, pH disturbances and oxidant stress to the hypoxia-induced cardiac dysfunction is examined, as well as various cellular signaling pathways (e.g. MAP kinases) involved in cell survival or death. In the context of the recent advances in developmental cardiology and fetal cardiac surgery, a better understanding of the physiopathology of the stressed developing heart is required.
Animals, Cell Hypoxia, Energy Metabolism, Heart/embryology, Heart/physiopathology, Humans, Myocardium/metabolism, Oxygen/metabolism
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