Article: article from journal or magazin.
Radionuclide shuntogram: adjunct to manage hydrocephalic patients
Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Journal Article --- Old month value: Mar
We reviewed our experience with shuntograms to establish technical criteria that would optimize the reliability of this test in managing patients with shunt malfunction. METHODS: Fifty-six shuntograms were performed in 47 children presenting with symptoms of shunt malfunction not elucidated by conventional radiological examination. Shuntograms were performed by injecting 0.5 ml 99mTc-DTPA in the reservoir of the shunt. RESULTS: There were 22 shuntograms in which ventricular reflux occurred and the entire shunt system was visualized. At surgery, three patients in this group presented partial obstruction of the ventricular and/or peritoneal catheter. A second group of patients had 15 shuntograms that showed normal proximal reflux but abnormal distal drainage. Ten patients in this group presented distal obstruction or fracture, valve dysfunction or peritoneal adhesions at surgery. A third group of patients with 19 shuntograms exhibited no proximal reflux. At surgery, twelve had an obstructed ventricular catheter and the last case showed overdrainage. Symptoms of nonsurgical patients abated spontaneously. CONCLUSION: The shuntogram is a useful procedure in the management of patients presenting with shunt-related problems. For consideration as a normal result, a shuntogram must exhibit ventricular reflux, the shunt system must be entirely visualized and the isotope must diffuse uniformly in the peritoneal cavity. Whereas rapid radionuclide clearance is a useful parameter in eliminating a distal obstruction. It is a misleading sign for proximal blockage. Absence of ventricular reflux is highly suggestive of proximal reflux. Implicit to this conclusion is the fact that the presence of a reservoir proximal to the valve greatly facilitates the performance and interpretation of a shuntogram.
Child Female Humans Hydrocephalus/*radionuclide imaging/*surgery Male Reproducibility of Results Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate/*diagnostic use Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/*adverse effects/methods
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