Inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings.
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Quantitative morphometry analysis of the fetal brain using clinical MR imaging
Title of the conference
ISMRM 2011, 19th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 7-13, 2011
Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
In vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging provides aunique approach for the study of early human braindevelopment . In utero cerebral morphometry couldpotentially be used as a marker of the cerebralmaturation and help to distinguish between normal andabnormal development in ambiguous situations. However,this quantitative approach is a major challenge becauseof the movement of the fetus inside the amniotic cavity,the poor spatial resolution provided by very fast MRIsequences and the partial volume effect. Extensiveefforts are made to deal with the reconstruction ofhigh-resolution 3D fetal volumes based on severalacquisitions with lower resolution [2,3,4]. Frameworkswere developed for the segmentation of specific regionsof the fetal brain such as posterior fossa, brainstem orgerminal matrix [5,6], or for the entire brain tissue[7,8], applying the Expectation-Maximization MarkovRandom Field (EM-MRF) framework. However, many of theseprevious works focused on the young fetus (i.e. before 24weeks) and use anatomical atlas priors to segment thedifferent tissue or regions. As most of the gyraldevelopment takes place after the 24th week, acomprehensive and clinically meaningful study of thefetal brain should not dismiss the third trimester ofgestation. To cope with the rapidly changing appearanceof the developing brain, some authors proposed a dynamicatlas . To our opinion, this approach however faces arisk of circularity: each brain will be analyzed /deformed using the template of its biological age,potentially biasing the effective developmental delay.Here, we expand our previous work  to proposepost-processing pipeline without prior that allow acomprehensive set of morphometric measurement devoted toclinical application. Data set & Methods: Prenatal MRimaging was performed with a 1-T system (GE MedicalSystems, Milwaukee) using single shot fast spin echo(ssFSE) sequences (TR 7000 ms, TE 180 ms, FOV 40 x 40 cm,slice thickness 5.4mm, in plane spatial resolution1.09mm). For each fetus, 6 axial volumes shifted by 1 mmwere acquired under motherâeuro?s sedation (about 1min pervolume). First, each volume is segmentedsemi-automatically using region-growing algorithms toextract fetal brain from surrounding maternal tissues.Inhomogeneity intensity correction  and linearintensity normalization are then performed. Brain tissues(CSF, GM and WM) are then segmented based on thelow-resolution volumes as presented in . Ahigh-resolution image with isotropic voxel size of 1.09mm is created as proposed in  and using B-splines forthe scattered data interpolation . Basal gangliasegmentation is performed using a levet setimplementation on the high-resolution volume . Theresulting white matter image is then binarized and givenas an input in FreeSurfer software(http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu) to providetopologically accurate three-dimensional reconstructionsof the fetal brain according to the local intensitygradient. References:  Guibaud, Prenatal Diagnosis29(4) (2009).  Rousseau, Acad. Rad. 13(9), 2006. Jiang, IEEE TMI 2007.  Warfield IADB, MICCAI 2009. Claude, IEEE Trans. Bio. Eng. 51(4) 2004.  Habas,MICCAI 2008.  Bertelsen, ISMRM 2009.  Habas,Neuroimage 53(2) 2010.  Bach Cuadra, IADB, MICCAI2009.  Styner, IEEE TMI 19(39 (2000).  Lee, IEEETrans. Visual. And Comp. Graph. 3(3), 1997.  BachCuadra, ISMRM 2010.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Brain development, Fetal Imaging, LTS5
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