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Fosfomycin plus β-Lactams as Synergistic Bactericidal Combinations for Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hospital Clinic Experimental Endocarditis Study Group
The urgent need of effective therapies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE) is a cause of concern. We aimed to ascertain the in vitro and in vivo activity of the older antibiotic fosfomycin combined with different beta-lactams against MRSA and glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA) strains. Time-kill tests with 10 isolates showed that fosfomycin plus imipenem (FOF+IPM) was the most active evaluated combination. In an aortic valve IE model with two strains (MRSA-277H and GISA-ATCC 700788), the following intravenous regimens were compared: fosfomycin (2 g every 8 h [q8h]) plus imipenem (1 g q6h) or ceftriaxone (2 g q12h) (FOF+CRO) and vancomycin at a standard dose (VAN-SD) (1 g q12h) and a high dose (VAN-HD) (1 g q6h). Whereas a significant reduction of MRSA-227H load in the vegetations (veg) was observed with FOF+IPM compared with VAN-SD (0 [interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 1] versus 2 [IQR, 0 to 5.1] log CFU/g veg; P = 0.01), no statistical differences were found with VAN-HD. In addition, FOF+IPM sterilized more vegetations than VAN-SD (11/15 [73%] versus 5/16 [31%]; P = 0.02). The GISA-ATCC 700788 load in the vegetations was significantly lower after FOF+IPM or FOF+CRO treatment than with VAN-SD (2 [IQR, 0 to 2] and 0 [IQR, 0 to 2] versus 6.5 [IQR, 2 to 6.9] log CFU/g veg; P < 0.01). The number of sterilized vegetations after treatment with FOF+CRO was higher than after treatment with VAN-SD or VAN-HD (8/15 [53%] versus 4/20 [20%] or 4/20 [20%]; P = 0.03). To assess the effect of FOF+IPM on penicillin binding protein (PBP) synthesis, molecular studies were performed, with results showing that FOF+IPM treatment significantly decreased PBP1, PBP2 (but not PBP2a), and PBP3 synthesis. These results allow clinicians to consider the use of FOF+IPM or FOF+CRO to treat MRSA or GISA IE.
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