Article: article from journal or magazin.
The effects of losartan on renal function in the newborn rabbit.
The low GFR of newborns is maintained by various factors including the renin-angiotensin system. We previously established the importance of angiotensin II in the newborn kidney, using the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindoprilat. The present study was designed to complement these observations by evaluating the role of angiotensin-type 1 (AT(1)) receptors, using losartan, a specific AT(1)-receptor blocker. Increasing doses of losartan were infused into anesthetized, ventilated, newborn rabbits. Renal function and hemodynamic variables were assessed using inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearances as markers of GFR and renal plasma flow, respectively. Losartan 0.1 mg/kg slightly decreased mean blood pressure (-11%) and increased diuresis (+22%). These changes can be explained by inhibition of the AT(1)-mediated vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic effects of angiotensin, and activation of vasodilating and diuretic AT(2) receptors widely expressed in the neonatal period. GFR and renal blood flow were not modified. Losartan 0.3 mg/kg decreased mean blood pressure significantly (-15%), probably by inhibiting systemic AT(1) receptors. GFR significantly decreased (-25%), whereas renal blood flow remained stable. The decrease in filtration fraction (-21%) indicates predominant efferent vasodilation. At 3 mg/kg, the systemic hypotensive effect of losartan was marked (mean blood pressure, -28%), with decreased GFR and renal blood flow (-57% and -51%, respectively), a stable filtration fraction, and an increase in renal vascular resistance by 124%. The renal response to this dose can be considered as reflex vasoconstriction of afferent and efferent arterioles, rather than specific receptor antagonism. We conclude that under physiologic conditions, the renin-angiotensin is critically involved in the maintenance of GFR in the immature kidney.
Animals, Animals, Newborn, Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology, Blood Pressure/drug effects, Blood Proteins, Carbon Dioxide/blood, Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects, Heart Rate/drug effects, Hematocrit, Losartan/pharmacology, Oxygen/blood, Rabbits, Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1, Receptors, Angiotensin/antagonists & inhibitors
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