Article: article from journal or magazin.
Fluorescence flow cytometer to determine urine particle reference intervals in doping control samples.
Forensic science international
Background: Urine is still the matrix of choice to fight against doping, because it can be collected non-invasively during anti-doping tests. Most of the World Anti-Doping Agency's accredited laboratories have more than 20 years experience in analyzing this biological fluid and the majority of the compounds listed in the 2010 Prohibited List - International Standard are eliminated through the urinary apparatus. Storing and transporting urine samples for doping analyses does not include a specific protocol to prevent microbial and thermal degradation. The use of a rapid and reliable screening method could enable determine reference intervals for urine specimens in doping control samples and evaluate notably the prevalence of microbial contamination known to be responsible for the degradation of chemical substances in urine.Methods: The Sysmex(R) UF-500i is a recent urine flow cytometer analyzer capable of quantifying BACT and other urinary particles such as RBC, WBC, EC, DEBRIS, CAST, PATH. CAST, YLC, SRC as well as measuring urine conductivity. To determine urine anti-doping reference intervals, 501 samples received in our laboratory over a period of two months were submitted to an immediate examination. All samples were collected and then transported at room temperature. Analysis of variance was performed to test the effects of factors such as gender, test type [in-competition, out-of-competition] and delivery time.Results: The data obtained showed that most of the urine samples were highly contaminated with bacteria. The other urine particles were also very different according to the factors.Conclusions: The Sysmex(R) UF-500i was capable of providing a snapshot of urine particles present in the samples at the time of the delivery to the laboratory. These particles, BACT in particular, gave a good idea of the possible microbial degradation which had and/or could have occurred in the sample. This information could be used as the first quality control set up in WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) accredited laboratories to determine if steroid profiles, endogenous and prohibited substances have possibly been altered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Web of science
Last modification date