Article: article from journal or magazin.
Characterisation and spatial distribution of gravitational slope deformation in the Upper Rhone catchment (Western Swiss Alps)
The influence of gravitational slope deformation (GSD) on erosion rates and the shape of mountain belts has been identified worldwide, particularly in valleys affected by glacial retreat. However, due to a lack of understanding about the main predisposing factors influencing their spatial distribution, size and failure mechanisms, the effective impact of GSD on the evolution of the landscape remains difficult to quantify. This study presents the first detailed, regional-scale GSD inventory of the entire Upper Rhone catchment (western Switzerland). The detection and mapping of GSD are performed by combining different remote sensing approaches. Moreover, we propose a detailed characterisation of GSD, taking into account geometry, morphology and failure mechanisms. Based on these analyses, more than 300 GSD are identified, corresponding to 11 % of the entire study area. Spatial and statistical analyses indicate that GSD are not uniformly distributed across the study area: six GSD clusters are highlighted, containing more than 80 % of the GSD events detected. Our observations suggest that the distribution of GSDs is primarily related to coexisting active tectonic processes (including high uplift gradients and earthquake activity) and pre-existing regional-scale, tectonic weakness zones. The region's lithological and structural conditions, on the other hand, appear largely to influence the failure mechanisms and the sizes of the GSD detected.
Swiss Alps . Slope deformation . Inventory . Spatial Cluster distribution . Predisposing factors
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