PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
Construction mechanisms and thermal evolution of upper crustal intrusions : the Saint-Jean-du-Doigt bimodal intrusion (Brittany, France)
Université de Lausanne, Faculté des géosciences et de l'environnement
Université de LausanneUNIL - SorgeAmphipôle - bureau 314CH-1015 LausanneSUISSE
Number of pages
Understanding the emplacement and growth of intrusive bodies in terms of mechanism, duration, ther¬mal evolution and rates are fundamental aspects of crustal evolution. Recent studies show that many plutons grow in several Ma by in situ accretion of discrete magma pulses, which constitute small-scale magmatic reservoirs. The residence time of magmas, and hence their capacities to interact and differentiate, are con¬trolled by the local thermal environment. The latter is highly dependant on 1) the emplacement depth, 2) the magmas and country rock composition, 3) the country rock thermal conductivity, 4) the rate of magma injection and 5) the geometry of the intrusion. In shallow level plutons, where magmas solidify quickly, evi¬dence for magma mixing and/or differentiation processes is considered by many authors to be inherited from deeper levels. This work shows however that in-situ differentiation and magma interactions occurred within basaltic and felsic sills at shallow depth (0.3 GPa) in the St-Jean-du-Doigt (SJDD) bimodal intrusion, France. This intrusion emplaced ca. 347 Ma ago (IDTIMS U/Pb on zircon) in the Precambrian crust of the Armori- can massif and preserves remarkable sill-like emplacement processes of bimodal mafic-felsic magmas. Field evidence coupled to high precision zircon U-Pb dating document progressive thermal maturation within the incrementally built ioppolith. Early m-thick mafic sills (eastern part) form the roof of the intrusion and are homogeneous and fine-grained with planar contacts with neighboring felsic sills; within a minimal 0.8 Ma time span, the system gets warmer (western part). Sills are emplaced by under-accretion under the old east¬ern part, interact and mingle. A striking feature of this younger, warmer part is in-situ differentiation of the mafic sills in the top 40 cm of the layer, which suggests liquids survival in the shallow crust. Rheological and thermal models were performed in order to determine the parameters required to allow this observed in- situ differentiation-accumulation processes. Strong constraints such as total emplacement durations (ca. 0.8 Ma, TIMS date) and pluton thickness (1.5 Km, gravity model) allow a quantitative estimation of the various parameters required (injection rates, incubation time,...). The results show that in-situ differentiation may be achieved in less than 10 years at such shallow depth, provided that: (1) The differentiating sills are injected beneath consolidated, yet still warm basalt sills, which act as low conductive insulating screens (eastern part formation in the SJDD intrusion). The latter are emplaced in a very short time (800 years) at high injection rate (0.5 m/y) in order to create a "hot zone" in the shallow crust (incubation time). This implies that nearly 1/3 of the pluton (400m) is emplaced by a subsequent and sustained magmatic activity occurring on a short time scale at the very beginning of the system. (2) Once incubation time is achieved, the calculations show that a small hot zone is created at the base of the sill pile, where new injections stay above their solidus T°C and may interact and differentiate. Extraction of differentiated residual liquids might eventually take place and mix with newly injected magma as documented in active syn-emplacement shear-zones within the "warm" part of the pluton. (3) Finally, the model show that in order to maintain a permanent hot zone at shallow level, injection rate must be of 0.03 m/y with injection of 5m thick basaltic sills eveiy 130yr, imply¬ing formation of a 15 km thick pluton. As this thickness is in contradiction with the one calculated for SJDD (1.5 Km) and exceed much the average thickness observed for many shallow level plutons, I infer that there is no permanent hot zone (or magma chambers) at such shallow level. I rather propose formation of small, ephemeral (10-15yr) reservoirs, which represent only small portions of the final size of the pluton. Thermal calculations show that, in the case of SJDD, 5m thick basaltic sills emplaced every 1500 y, allow formation of such ephemeral reservoirs. The latter are formed by several sills, which are in a mushy state and may interact and differentiate during a short time.The mineralogical, chemical and isotopic data presented in this study suggest a signature intermediate be¬tween E-MORB- and arc-like for the SJDD mafic sills and feeder dykes. The mantle source involved produced hydrated magmas and may be astenosphere modified by "arc-type" components, probably related to a sub¬ducting slab. Combined fluid mobile/immobile trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that such subduc¬tion components are mainly fluids derived from altered oceanic crust with minor effect from the subducted sediments. Close match between the SJDD compositions and BABB may point to a continental back-arc setting with little crustal contamination. If so, the SjDD intrusion is a major witness of an extensional tectonic regime during the Early-Carboniferous, linked to the subduction of the Rheno-Hercynian Ocean beneath the Variscan terranes. Also of interest is the unusual association of cogenetic (same isotopic compositions) K-feldspar A- type granite and albite-granite. A-type granites may form by magma mixing between the mafic magma and crustal melts. Alternatively, they might derive from the melting of a biotite-bearing quartz-feldspathic crustal protolith triggered by early mafic injections at low crustal levels. Albite-granite may form by plagioclase cu¬mulate remelting issued from A-type magma differentiation.
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