Article: article from journal or magazin.
The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and the ras oncogene modulate expression and phosphorylation of gap junction proteins.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Gap junctional intercellular communication is inhibited in response to tumor promoters and oncogene transformation, suggesting that loss of this function is an important step in tumor formation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for this inhibition, we examined the expression of gap junction proteins and mRNA in mouse primary keratinocytes after treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and/or ras transformation. During normal cell growth, keratinocytes expression the alpha 1 (connexin 43) and beta 2 (connexin 26) proteins. Within 5 min of TPA treatment, the alpha 1 protein became rapidly phosphorylated on serine residues and its expression was dramatically reduced by 24 h. The beta 2 protein, after an initial increase in expression, was also significantly reduced 24 h after treatment with TPA. ras transformation caused changes similar to those induced by TPA. The alpha 1 protein underwent an increase in serine phosphorylation, although its expression declined only slightly, while beta 2 expression was greatly reduced. The effects of TPA and ras on alpha 1 expression were additive; treatment of ras-transformed cells with TPA resulted in increased alpha 1 phosphorylation, with greatly decreased protein levels, much lower than those generated by either agent alone. These data provide a likely explanation for the similar and synergistic inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by phorbol esters and ras.
Animals, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Cell Transformation, Viral, Cells, Cultured, Connexins, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects, Genes, ras, Harvey murine sarcoma virus/genetics, Keratinocytes/metabolism, Membrane Proteins/biosynthesis, Membrane Proteins/genetics, Mice, Moloney murine leukemia virus/genetics, Phosphorylation, Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology
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