Article: article from journal or magazin.
Petrology and mineral chemistry of lower crustal intrusions: the Chilas Complex, Kohistan (NW Pakistan)
Journal of Petrology
Mineral major and trace element data are presented for the main rock units of the Chilas Complex, a series of lower crustal intrusions emplaced during initial rifting within the Mesozoic Kohistan (paleo)-island arc ( NW Pakistan). Detailed field observations and petrological analysis, together with geochemical data, indicate that the two principal units, ultramafic rocks and gabbronorite sequences, originate from a common parental magma, but evolved along different mineral fractionation trends. Phase petrology and mineral trace element data indicate that the fractionation sequence of the ultramafic rocks is dominated by the crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene prior to plagioclase, whereas plagioclase precedes clinopyroxene in the gabbronorites. Clinopyroxene in the ultramafic rocks ( with Mg-number [Mg/(Fe-tot+Mg] up to 0.95) displays increasing Al2O3 with decreasing Mg-number. The light rare earth element depleted trace element pattern (Ce-N/Gd-N similar to 0.5-0.3) of primitive clinopyroxenes displays no Eu anomaly. In contrast, clinopyroxenes from the gabbronorites contain plagioclase inclusions, and the trace element pattern shows pronounced negative anomalies for Sr, Pb and Eu. Trace element modeling indicates that in situ crystallization may account for major and trace element variations in the gabbronorite sequence, whereas the olivine-dominated ultramafic rocks show covariations between olivine Mg-number and Ni and Mn contents, pointing to the importance of crystal fractionation during their formation. A modeled parental liquid for the Chilas Complex is explained in terms of mantle- and slab-derived components, where the latter component accounts for 99% of the highly incompatible elements and between 30 and 80% of the middle rare earth elements. The geochemical characteristics of this component are similar to those of a low percentage melt or supercritical liquid derived from subducted mafic crust. However, elevated Pb/Ce ratios are best explained by additional involvement of hydrous fluids. In accordance with the crystallization sequence, the subsolidus metamorphic reactions indicate pressures of 0.5-0.7 GPa. Our data support a model of combined flux and decompression melting in the back-arc.
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