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Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: emerging mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.
Drug Resistance Updates
Chronic intake of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors, in particular colon cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that NSAID exert tumor-suppressive activity on pre-malignant lesions (polyps) in humans and on established experimental tumors in mice. Some of the tumor-suppressive effects of NSAIDs depend on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane, which is highly expressed in inflammation and cancer. Recent findings indicate that NSAIDs exert their anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. The availability of COX-2-specific NSAIDs opens the possibility of using this drug class as anti-angiogenic agents in combination with chemotheapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of human cancer. Here we will briefly review recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism by which NSAIDs suppress tumor angiogenesis and discuss their potential clinical application as anti-cancer agents.
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/antagonists & inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/metabolism, Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use, Cyclooxygenase 2, Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/blood supply, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/drug therapy, Humans, Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors, Isoenzymes/metabolism, Membrane Proteins, Neovascularization, Pathologic/enzymology, Neovascularization, Pathologic/prevention & control, Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism
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