Article: article from journal or magazin.
A gain-of-function allele of TPC1 activates oxylipin biogenesis after leaf wounding in Arabidopsis.
Jasmonates, potent lipid mediators of defense gene expression in plants, are rapidly synthesized in response to wounding. These lipid mediators also stimulate their own production via a positive feedback circuit, which depends on both JA synthesis and JA signaling. To date, molecular components regulating the activation of jasmonate biogenesis and its feedback loop have been poorly characterized. We employed a genetic screen capable of detecting the misregulated activity of 13-lipoxygenase, which operates at the entry point of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway. Leaf extracts from the Arabidopsis fou2 (fatty acid oxygenation upregulated 2) mutant displayed an increased capacity to catalyze the synthesis of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites. Quantitative oxylipin analysis identified less than twofold increased jasmonate levels in healthy fou2 leaves compared to wild-type; however, wounded fou2 leaves strongly increased jasmonate biogenesis compared to wounded wild-type. Furthermore, the plants displayed enhanced resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Higher than wild-type LOX activity and enhanced resistance in the fou2 mutant depend fully on a functional jasmonate response pathway. The fou2 mutant carries a missense mutation in the putative voltage sensor of the Two Pore Channel 1 gene (TPC1), which encodes a Ca(2+)-permeant non-selective cation channel. Patch-clamp analysis of fou2 vacuolar membranes showed faster time-dependent conductivity and activation of the mutated channel at lower membrane potentials than wild-type. The results indicate that cation fluxes exert strong control over the positive feedback loop whereby JA stimulates its own synthesis.
Arabidopsis/genetics, Arabidopsis/physiology, Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics, Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism, Calcium Channels/genetics, Calcium Channels/physiology, Cyclopentanes/metabolism, Electrophysiology, Fatty Acids/metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Intracellular Membranes/physiology, Lipoxygenase/metabolism, Mutation, Missense, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxylipins, Plant Growth Regulators/biosynthesis, Plant Leaves/genetics, Plant Leaves/physiology, RNA, Messenger, Signal Transduction, Vacuoles/physiology
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