Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Loss of insulin synthesis and beta cell survival induced by oxidized LDL require activation of reticulum endoplasmic stress: a mechanism countered by HDL
Title of the conference
44th EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes
Rome, Italy, 8 - 11 September 2008
Elevated circulating concentrations in modified LDL-cholesterol particles (e.g. oxidised LDL) and low levels in HDL increase not only the risk for diabetic patients to develop cardiovascular diseases but also may contribute to development and progression of diabetes by directly having adverse effects on β-cells. Chronic exposure of β-cells to 2 mM human oxidised LDL-cholesterol (oxLDL) increases the rate of apoptosis, reduce insulin biosynthesis and the secretory capacity of the cells in response to nutrients. In line with the protective role, HDL efficiently antagonised the harmful effects of ox- LDL, suggesting that low levels of HDL would be inefficient to protect β-cells against oxLDL attack in patients. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is pointed out to contribute to β-cell dysfunction elicited by environmental stressors. In this study we investigated whether activation of ER stress is required for oxLDL to mediate detrimental effects on β-cells and we tested the potential antagonist properties of HDL: The mouse MIN6 insulin-secreting cells were cultured with 2 mM of LDL-cholesterol preparation (native or in vitro oxidized) in the presence or absence of 1 mM of HDL-cholesterol or the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA): Prolonged exposure of MIN6 cells to 2 mM oxLDL-cholesterol for 48 hours led to an increase in expression of ER stress markers such as ATF4, CHOP and p58 and stimulated the splicing of XBP-1 whereas, induction of these markers was not observable in the cells cultured with native LDL. Treatment of the cells with the 4-PBA chemical chaperone molecule efficiently blocked activation of the ER stress markers induced by oxLDL. The latter mediates β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis by diminishing the expression of islet brain 1 (IB1) and Bcl2. The levels of these two proteins were preserved in the cells that were co-treated with oxLDL and the 4-PBA. Consistent with this result we found that blockade of ER stress activation alleviated the loss of insulin synthesis and abolished apoptosis evoked by oxLDL. However incubation of the cells with 4-PBA did not prevent impairment of insulin secretion elicited by oxLDL, indicating that ER stress is not responsible for the oxLDL-mediated defect of insulin secretion. Co-incubation of the cells with HDL mimicked the effects of 4-PBA on the expression of IB1 and Blc2 and thereby counteracted oxLDL attacks on insulin synthesis and cell survivals. We found that HDL efficiently inhibited activation of the ER stress mediated by oxLDL: These data highlight the contribution of the ER stress in the defects of insulin synthesis and cell survivals induced by oxLDL and emphasize the potent role of HDL to counter activation of the oxLDL-mediated ER-stress activation:
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