Article: article from journal or magazin.
Oligogalacturonide defense signals in plants: large fragments interact with the plasma membrane in vitro.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Oligogalacturonides are plant cell wall-derived regulatory molecules which stimulate defense gene expression during pathogenesis. In vitro, these compounds enhance the phosphorylation of an approximately 34-kDa protein (pp34) in purified plasma membranes from potato and tomato leaves. We now show that polygalacturonate-enhanced phosphorylation of pp34 occurs in plasma membranes purified from tomato roots, hypocotyls, and stems and from undifferentiated potato cells. Furthermore, a similar phosphorylation is detected in leaf plasma membranes from soybean, a plant distantly related to tomato. Purified oligogalacturonides 13 to at least 26 residues long stimulate pp34 thiophosphorylation in vitro. This stimulation pattern differs from the induction of many known defense responses in vivo, where a narrower range of smaller fragments, between approximately 10 and 15 residues long, are active. On the basis of these differences we suggest that observed effects of applied exogenous oligogalacturonides on defense responses may not necessarily reflect the situation during pathogenesis. The cell wall could act as a barrier to many exogenous oligo- and polygalacturonides as well as other large regulatory ligands.
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