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Efficacy of Canakinumab (ACZ885), a Fully Human Anti-Interleukin (IL)-1beta Monoclonal Antibody, in the Prevention of Flares in Gout Patients Initiating Allopurinol Therapy
Title of the conference
American College of Rheumatology/Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals Annual Scientific Meeting
Atlanta, Georgia November 6-11, 2010
Arthritis and Rheumatism
Background: Gout patients initiating urate lowering therapy have an increased risk of flares. Inflammation in gouty arthritis is induced by IL-1b. Canakinumab targets and inhibits IL-1b effectively in clinical studies. This study compared different doses of canakinumab vs colchicine in preventing flares in gout patients initiating allopurinol therapy.Methods: In this 24 week double blind study, gout patients (20-79 years) initiating allopurinol were randomized (1:1:1:1:1:1:2) to canakinumab s.c. single doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 mg, or 150 mg divided in doses every 4 weeks (50+50+25+25 mg [q4wk]) or colchicine 0.5 mg p.o. daily for 16 weeks. Primary outcome was to determine the canakinumab dose giving comparable efficacy to colchicine with respect to the number of gout flares occurring during first 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes included number of patients with gout flares and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during the first 16 weeks.Results: 432 patients were randomized and 391 (91%) completed the study. All canakinumab doses were better than colchicine in preventing flares and therefore, a canakinumab dose comparable to colchicine could not be determined. Based on a negative binomial model, all canakinumab groups, except 25 mg, reduced the flare rate ratio per patient significantly compared to colchicine group (rate ratio estimates 25 mg 0.60, 50 mg 0.34, 100 mg 0.28, 200 mg 0.37, 300 mg 0.29, q4wk 0.38; p<=0.05). The percentage of patients with flares was lower for all canakinumab groups (25 mg 27.3%, 50 mg 16.7%, 100 mg 14.8%, 200 mg 18.5%, 300 mg 15.1%, q4wk 16.7%) compared to colchicine group (44.4%). All patients taking canakinumab were significantly less likely to experience at least one gout flare than patients taking colchicine (odds ratio range [0.22 - 0.47]; p<=0.05 for all). The median baseline CRP levels were 2.86 mg/L for 25 mg, 3.42 mg/L for 50 mg, 1.76 mg/L for 100 mg, 3.66 mg/L for 200 mg, 3.21 mg/L for 300 mg, 3.23 mg/L for q4wk canakinumab groups and 2.69 mg/L for colchicine group. In all canakinumab groups with median CRP levels above the normal range at baseline, median levels declined within 15 days of treatment and were maintained at normal levels (ULN=3 mg/L) throughout the 16 week period. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 52.7% (25 mg), 55.6% (50 mg), 51.9% (100 mg), 51.9% (200 mg), 54.7% (300 mg), and 58.5% (q4wk) of patients on canakinumab vs 53.7% of patients on colchicine. Serious AEs (SAE) were reported in 2 (3.6%; 25 mg), 2 (3.7%, 50 mg), 3 (5.6%, 100 mg), 3 (5.6%, 200 mg), 3 (5.7%, 300 mg) and 1 (1.9%, q4wk) patients on canakinumab and in 5 (4.6%) patients on colchicine. One fatal SAE (myocardial infarction, not related to study drug) occurred in colchicine group.Conclusion: In this large randomized, double-blind active controlled study of flare prevention in gout patients initiating allopurinol therapy, treatment with canakinumab led to a statistically significant reduction in flares compared with colchicine (standard of care), and was well tolerated.
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