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Formation of a direct arterial blood supply to the anterior pituitary gland following complete or partial interruption of the hypophyseal portal vessels
If regions of the anterior pituitary gland received systemic blood via a direct arterial blood supply these regions would escape hypothalamic regulation and thus be a sequela in endocrine disorders. Since, in the untreated rat, all of the blood supply to the anterior pituitary gland is via the hypophyseal portal vessels, we hypothesized that partial interruption of the portal vessels could provoke the establishment of a direct arterial blood supply (arteriogenesis). We utilized the injection of polystyrene microspheres (15 or 9 micron diameter) into the left ventricle of the heart to test this hypothesis. Microspheres are trapped in the first capillary plexus they reach since they are too large to traverse the capillaries. No microspheres reached the anterior pituitary gland of control rats, a finding consistent with the fact that the anterior pituitary gland receives all of its blood supply via the hypophyseal portal blood vessels. Microspheres were observed in the primary portal capillary plexus in the infundibulum (median eminence), infundibular stalk (pituitary stalk), and infundibular process (pars nervosa), the first capillary plexus which they reached. A lesion of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) which destroyed the long portal vessels did not result in arteriogenesis since few, if any, microspheres were observed in the anterior pituitary gland. We confirmed, using vascular casts, that these lesions resulted in the long-term destruction of the primary portal capillaries in the infundibulum and of the long portal vessels. In MBH-lesioned animals it appears that all of the blood supply of the anterior pituitary gland is via short portal vessels arising from the infundibular stem and process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Animals Hypothalamus, Middle/blood supply Kidney/surgery Microspheres *Neovascularization, Pathologic Pituitary Gland/*blood supply Pituitary Gland, Anterior/*blood supply/transplantation Rats Rats, Inbred Strains
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