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Emerging viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
This overview summarizes recent data on emerging viruses after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), including adenovirus, BK virus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human herpesvirus (HHV) 6. The increased recognition of these infections is due to improved molecular detection methods, increased surveillance and more profound immunosuppression in the host. Adenovirus can cause serious disease especially in T-cell depleted transplant recipients. Adenovirus viremia is an important risk factor for disease in this setting. BK virus has been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis in HCT recipients. BK viremia is significantly associated with hemorrhagic cystitis. hMPV shows a seasonal distribution and can cause fatal pneumonia in HCT recipients. hMPV may be the etiology of some cases previously categorized as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. HHV-6 commonly leads to viremia in HCT recipients. HHV-6 has been strongly associated with encephalitis and delayed platelet engraftment. Prospective studies are needed to further examine epidemiology, disease associations, and management strategies for these viruses.
Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology, Adenovirus Infections, Human/etiology, BK Virus, Child, Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology, Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects, Herpesvirus 6, Human, Humans, Metapneumovirus, Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology, Paramyxoviridae Infections/etiology, Polyomavirus Infections/epidemiology, Polyomavirus Infections/etiology, Roseolovirus Infections/epidemiology, Roseolovirus Infections/etiology, Tumor Virus Infections/epidemiology, Tumor Virus Infections/etiology, Virus Diseases/epidemiology, Virus Diseases/etiology
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