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Prolonged fluconazole exposure leads to a shift to Candida species with decreased susceptibility in breakthrough candidemia: prospective survey of the Fungal Infection Network of Switzerland
Title of the conference
5th Congress on Trends in Medical Mycology
Valencia, Spain, October 2-5, 2011
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Objectives: To compare the clinical characteristics, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSI) in breakthrough (BTC) vs. non-breakthrough candidemia (NBTC) and to study the effect of prolonged vs. short fluconazole (F) exposure in BTC.Methods: Candida BSI were prospectively collected during 2004- 2006 from 27 hospitals (seven university, 20 affiliated) of the FUNGINOS network. Susceptibility to F, voriconazole (V) and caspofungin (C) was tested in the FUNGINOS mycology reference laboratory by microtitre broth dilution method with the Sensititre YeastOneTM test panel. Clinical data were collected using standardized CRFs. BTC was defined as occurring during antifungal treatment/prophylaxis of at least three days duration prior to the candidemia. Susceptibility of BSI was defined according to 2010/2011 CLSI clinical breakpoints.Results: Out of 567 candidemia episodes, 550 Candida BSI were available. Of these, 43 (7.6%) were from BTC (37/43, 86% were isolated after F exposure). 38 BTC (88.4%) and 315 NBTC (55.6%) occurred in university hospitals (P < 0.001). The majority of patients developing BTC were immunocompromised: higher proportions of haematological malignancies (62.8% in BTC vs. 47.1% in NBTC, P < 0.001), neutropenia (37.2% vs. 11.8%, P < 0.001), acute GvHD (14% vs. 0.2%, P < 0.001), immunosuppressive drugs (74.4% vs. 7.8%, P < 0.001), and mucositis (32.6% vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001) were observed. Other differences between BTC and NBTC were higher proportions of patients with central venous catheters in the 2 weeks preceding candidemia (95.3% vs. 83.4%, P = 0.047) and receiving total parenteral nutrition (62.8% vs. 35.9%, P < 0.001), but a lower proportion of patients treated with gastric proton pump inhibitors (23.3% vs. 72.1%, P < 0.001). Overall mortality of BTC and NBTC was not different (34.9% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.73), while a trend to higher attributable mortality in BTC was found (13.9% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.12). Species identification showed a majority of C. albicans in both groups (51.2% in BTC vs. 62.9% in NBTC, P = 0.26), followed by C. glabrata (18.6% vs. 18.5%), C. tropicalis (2.3% vs. 6.3%) and C. parapsilosis (7.0% vs. 4.7%). Significantly more C. krusei were detected in BTC versus NBTC (11.6% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.002). The geometric mean MIC for F, V and C between BTC and NBTC isolates was not significantly different. However, in BTC there was a significant association between duration of F exposure and the Candida spp.: >10 days of F was associated with a significant shift from susceptible Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. famata) to non-susceptible species (C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. norvegensis). Among 21 BTC episodes occurring after £10 days of F, 19% of the isolates were non-susceptible, in contrast to 68.7% in 16 BTC episodes occurring after >10 days of F (P = 0.003).Conclusions: Breakthrough candidemia occurred more often in immunocompromised hosts. Fluconazole administered for >10 days was associated with a shift to non-susceptible Candida spp.. Length of fluconazole exposure should be taken into consideration for the choice of empirical antifungal treatment.
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