Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Early glutathione deficit impairs parvalbumin expression in gaba interneurons and kainate-induced gamma oscillations
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12th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, San Diego, CA, March 28-April 01, 2009
An increased oxidative stress and alteration of the antioxidant systems have been observed in schizophrenia. Glutathione (GSH), a major redox regulator, is decreased in patients' cerebrospinal fluid, prefrontal cortex in vivo and striatum post-mortem tissue. Most importantly, there is genetic and functional evidence for the implication of the gene of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, the key GSH-synthesizing enzyme. We have developed animal models for a GSH deficit to study the consequences of such deficit on the brain development. A GSH deficit combined with elevated dopamine (DA) during development leads to reduced parvalbumin (PV) expression in a subclass of GABA interneurons in rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Similar changes are observed in postmortem brain tissue of schizophrenic patients. GSH dysregulation increases vulnerability to oxidative stress, that in turn could lead to cortical circuit anomalies in the schizophrenic brain. In the present study, we use a GCL modulatory subunit (GCLM) knock-out (KO) mouse model that presents up to 80% decreased brain GSH levels. During postnatal development, a subgroup of animals from each genotype is exposed to elevated oxidative stress induced by treatment with the DA reuptake inhibitor GBR12909. Results reveal a significant genotype-specific delay International Congress on Schizophrenia Research 136 10. 10. Neuroanatomy, Animal Downloaded from http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org at Bibliotheque Cantonale et Universitaire on June 18, 2010 in cortical PV expression at postnatal day P10 in GCLM-KO mice, as compared to wild-type. This effect seems to be further exaggerated in animals treated with GBR12909 from P5 to P10. At P20, PV expression is no longer significantly reduced in GCLM-KO ACC without GBR but is reduced if GBR is applied from P10 to P20. However, our result show that GCLM-KO mice exhibit increased oxidative stress, cortical altered myelin development as shown by MBP marker, and more specifically impairment of the peri-neuronal net known to modulate PV connectivity. In addition, we also observe a reduced PV expression in the ventro-temporal hippocampus of adult GCLM-KO mice, suggesting that anomalies of the PV interneurons prevail at least in some brain regions throughout the adulthood. Interestingly, the power of kainate-induced gamma oscillations, known to be dependent on proper activation of PV interneuron's, is also lower in hippocampal slices of adult GCLM KO mice. These results suggest that the PV positive GABA interneurons is particularly vulnerable to increased oxidative stress
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