Article: article from journal or magazin.
Preferential infection of immature dendritic cells and B cells by mouse mammary tumor virus.
Journal of Immunology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Until now it was thought that the retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus preferentially infects B cells, which thereafter proliferate and differentiate due to superantigen-mediated T cell help. We describe in this study that dendritic cells are infectable at levels comparable to B cells in the first days after virus injection. Moreover, IgM knockout mice have chronically deleted superantigen-reactive T cells after MMTV injection, indicating that superantigen presentation by dendritic cells is sufficient for T cell deletion. In both subsets initially only few cells were infected, but there was an exponential increase in numbers of infected B cells due to superantigen-mediated T cell help, explaining that at the peak of the response infection is almost exclusively found in B cells. The level of infection in vivo was below 1 in 1000 dendritic cells or B cells. Infection levels in freshly isolated dendritic cells from spleen, Langerhans cells from skin, or bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were compared in an in vitro infection assay. Immature dendritic cells such as Langerhans cells or bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were infected 10- to 30-fold more efficiently than mature splenic dendritic cells. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells carrying an endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen were highly efficient at inducing a superantigen response in vivo. These results highlight the importance of professional APC and efficient T cell priming for the establishment of a persistent infection by mouse mammary tumor virus.
Adoptive Transfer, Animals, Antigen Presentation/genetics, B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology, B-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism, Cell Differentiation/genetics, Cell Differentiation/immunology, Cells, Cultured, Clonal Deletion/genetics, Dendritic Cells/immunology, Dendritic Cells/pathology, Interphase/immunology, Lymph Nodes/immunology, Lymph Nodes/pathology, Lymphopenia/genetics, Lymphopenia/immunology, Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse/immunology, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred DBA, Mice, Knockout, Retroviridae Infections/immunology, Superantigens/biosynthesis, Superantigens/immunology, Tumor Virus Infections/immunology
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