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Dysfunction of lower urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury.
Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Over the past 50 years, the mortality for urorenal cause in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has decreased from over 75% to 2.3%, as a result of dramatic improvements in the diagnosis and management of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). The aims of this chapter are to assess the physiopathology of upper and lower motor neuron lesion on bladder and sphincter function after SCI, to give an overview of required clinical and instrumental examination and to discuss treatment modalities. Videourodynamic examination plays a key role in the assessment and follow-up of LUTD in SCI patients, in conjunction with neurophysiological and radiological examinations. The cornerstone of bladder management in SCI is clean intermittent self-catheterization, but often other treatments are needed to achieve full continence, to reduce infections and stone formation, to protect the upper urinary tract from excessive bladder pressure, and to prevent chronic renal failure. Treatments may be pharmacologic (i.e., anticholinergic drugs and botulinum toxin) or surgical (by enterocystoplasty or urinary diversion). In selected cases, neuromodulation and sacral root stimulation can be used to reduce detrusor overactivity and empty the bladder. Management of LUTD in SCI patients requires a deep knowledge of spinal cord medicine and functioning of patients with neurologic disability.
Female, Humans, Male, Spinal Cord Injuries/complications, Urologic Diseases/etiology, Urologic Diseases/physiopathology
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