Article: article from journal or magazin.
Once-a-week azithromycin in AIDS patients: tolerability, kinetics, and effects on zidovudine disposition.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publication Status: ppublish
Publication Status: ppublish
Toxoplasmic encephalitis is one of the leading causes of morbidity in patients with AIDS. Lifelong treatment is needed to prevent relapses, and primary prevention is desirable in high-risk patients, but the available drugs are often poorly tolerated. Azithromycin (AZM) has been considered a drug candidate because of its efficacy in the animal model and its kinetic properties, which would allow intermittent administration. The tolerability and kinetics of AZM and its effect on the disposition of zidovudine (ZVD) were therefore evaluated in a preliminary open study in nine human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. AZM was administered once weekly for 5 weeks 2 h before the usual morning ZVD dose. The day before and on the first and fifth AZM dosings, blood samples were drawn every 30 min during 5 h for determination of the concentrations of ZVD and its glucuronide metabolite. Blood samples were drawn for AZM measurement over 72 and 360 h on the first and fifth AZM administrations, respectively, as well as before and 3 h after dosing on the second, third, and fourth AZM dosings. After the first and fifth administrations, maximum AZM concentrations in serum were 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 microM (mean +/- standard error of the mean), respectively; times to peak concentration in serum were 3.7 +/- 0.2 and 2.9 +/- 0.4 h, respectively; areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were 9.2 +/- 1.6 and 9.3 +/- 2.0 micrograms.h/ml, respectively; and half-lives were 61.0 +/- 5.4 and 63.8 +/- 6.7 h, respectively. On days -1, 1, and 29, ZVD kinetic parameters were as follows: maximum concentrations in serum, 3.1+/- 0.6, 4.3 +/- 0.6, and 4.2 +/- 0.9 microM, respectively; times to maximum concentrations in serum, 1.1 +/- 0.4, 0.8 +/- 0.2, and 1.2 +/- 0.3 h, respectively: areas under the plasma concentration-time curves, 5.3 +/- 0.9, 5.9 +/- 0.6, and 5.7 +/- 0.8 microgram . h/ml, respectively; and half-lives, 1.3 +/- 0.08, 1.4 +/- 0.04, and 1.3 +/- 0.04 h, respectively. Except for transient mild abdominal cramps that occurred at 2 to 3 h postdose (6 of 45 exposures) and nausea (4 of 45 exposures), neither subjective nor objective side effects were observed. The kinetics of AZM were similar after the first and repeated administrations, and the disposition of ZVD was not altered by this treatment. The efficacy of AZM in preventing cerebral toxoplasmosis can therefore be safely tested in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients concomitantly treated with zidovudine.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy, Administration, Oral, Adult, Azithromycin, Biotransformation, Drug Administration Schedule, Drug Tolerance, Erythromycin/administration & dosage, Erythromycin/analogs & derivatives, Female, Humans, Male, Zidovudine/blood, Zidovudine/pharmacokinetics
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