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Evolución de la agregación y separación de sexos: ¿Qué hemos aprendido de las poblaciones ibéricas de Mercurialis annua?
Most plant species are hermaphrodites, with both male and female functions performed by the same individuals. However, separate sexes (dioecy) have evolved on numerous independent occasions, probably either in response to selection for inbreeding avoidance, or because it pays individuals to specialize in one gender or the other. Although the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism tends to be thought of as a one-way path, dioecy has broken down to yield hermaphroditic populations on several occasions. One such case is found in the mainly dioecious genus Mercurialis (Euphorbiaceae). In the species complex M. annua, diploids are dioecious, but polyploid populations are variously monoecious or androdioecious (where males co-exist with functional hermaphrodites). This species complex offers rich material for addressing questions concerning the evolution and ecology of combined versus separate sexes, the evolution of secondary sexual dimorphism, which likely contributes to the stability of dioecy in the genus, and the evolution and genetics of sex determination and sex chromosomes. The species also offers itself as a valuable teaching tool for addressing topics ranging from sex-ratio selection to inter-sexual competition.
itness gain curves, inbreeding depression, mating systems, sexual dimorphism, sexual specialization, teaching tool, curvas de ganancia de eficacia biológica, depresión por endogamia, dimorfismo sexual, especialización sexual, recurso docente, sistemas de cruzamiento
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