Article: article from journal or magazin.
Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of genes encoding heterodimeric phospholipases A2 from the venom of the scorpion Anuroctonus phaiodactylus.
Some scorpion venom contain heterodimeric phospholipases A2. They were shown to be toxic to insects and to cause edema and/or hemolysis of mammalian erythrocytes. This manuscript describes the results of cDNA cloning of five different heterodimeric phospholipases from the venomous glands of the Mexican scorpion Anuroctonus phaiodactylus. The amino acid sequence deduced from the heterodimeric phospholipases open reading frames corresponds in each case to a different isoform. The nucleotide sequences corresponding to two of these genes were also obtained by directly sequencing genomic DNA. The cDNA isoforms show high similarity with the heterodimeric phospholipase Phaiodactylipin purified from the same scorpion. However, similar phospholipases were also found in scorpions from other species and the sequences available were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. In order to understand better the gene structure and phylogeny of these enzymes we analyzed their sequences and compared them with secretory phospholipases of other sources from groups I, II and III. The genomic DNA sequence of a similar phospholipase from bee venomous glands was also cloned. The information available on a Drosophila phospholipase was included in this analysis. The phospholipases of groups I and II contain a conserved exon-intron structure (four or five exons of the mature segment of the enzyme are separated by three or four introns). Also, the gene structure of the phospholipases from A. phaiodactylus and that of the bee venom, belonging to group III phospholipases, are interrupted by three introns. The mature peptide of the bee enzyme is a single polypeptide chain, coded by four exons, whereas those from the scorpion studied here although having four exons, showed the presence of two different polypeptides in its native state. The mature protein is processed after synthesis, producing the heterodimeric structure: a long and a short-peptide chain, linked by a disulfide bridge. The small subunit is the one coded by the fourth exon. The human phospholipase A2 and that of Drosophila, also classified into the group III phospholipases, have a considerably different exon-intron organization.
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Cloning, Molecular, DNA, Complementary/genetics, Dimerization, Isoenzymes/chemistry, Isoenzymes/genetics, Models, Genetic, Molecular Sequence Data, Phospholipases A/chemistry, Phospholipases A/genetics, Phospholipases A2, Phylogeny, Scorpion Venoms/enzymology, Scorpions/enzymology, Sequence Analysis, DNA
Web of science
Last modification date