Article: article from journal or magazin.
The release of antidiuretic hormone is appropriate in response to hypovolemia and/or sodium administration in children with severe head injury: a trial of lactated Ringer's solution versus hypertonic saline.
Anesthesia and analgesia
Publication types: Clinical Trial ; Comparative Study ; Journal Article ; Randomized Controlled Trial - Publication Status: ppublish
We conducted an open, randomized, and prospective study to determine the effect of hypertonic saline on the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone in children with severe head injury (Glasgow coma scale <8). Thirty-one consecutive patients at a level III pediatric intensive care unit at a children's hospital received either lactated Ringer's solution (Ringer's group, n = 16) or hypertonic saline (Hypertonic Saline group, n = 15) over a 3-day period. Serum ADH levels were significantly larger in the Hypertonic Saline group as compared with the Ringer's group (P = 0.001; analysis of variance) and were correlated to sodium intake (Ringer's group: r = 0.39, R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02; Hypertonic Saline group: r = 0.42, R(2) = 0.18, P = 0.02) and volume of fluids given IV (Ringer's group: r = 0.38, R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02; Hypertonic Saline group: r = 0.32, R(2) = 0.1, P = not significant). Correlation of ADH to plasma osmolality was significant if plasma osmolality was >280 mOsm/kg (r = 0.5, R(2) = 0.25, P = 0.06), indicating an osmotic threshold for ADH release. Serum aldosterone levels were larger on the first day than during Days 2 and 3 in both groups and inversely correlated to serum sodium levels only in the Ringer's group (r = -0.55, R(2) = 0.3, P < 0.001). This group received a significantly larger fluid volume on Day 1 (P = 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) than did patients in the Hypertonic Saline group, indicating hypovolemia during the first day. Head-injured children have appropriate levels of ADH. They may be hypovolemic during the first day of treatment, especially if they receive lactated Ringer's solution. IMPLICATIONS: In head-injured patients, we recommend fluid restriction to avoid inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In a prospective, randomized, and controlled study in 31 children, we were able to show that the antidiuretic hormone levels are appropriate in response to hypovolemia, sodium load, or both.
Adolescent, Aldosterone, Child, Child, Preschool, Craniocerebral Trauma, Humans, Hypovolemia, Infant, Isotonic Solutions, Prospective Studies, Saline Solution, Hypertonic, Sodium, Vasopressins
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