Article: article from journal or magazin.
Identification of Wax Esters in Latent Print Residues by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectromertry and Their Potential Use as Aging Parameters
Journal of Forensic Identification
Recent studies show that the composition of fingerprint residue varies significantly from the same donor as well as between donors. This variability is a major drawback in latent print dating issues. This study aimed, therefore, at the definition of a parameter that is less variable from print to print, using a ratio of peak area of a target compound degrading over time divided by the summed area of peaks of more stable compounds also found in latent print residues.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the initial lipid composition of latent prints identifies four main classes of compounds that can be used in the definition of an aging parameter: fatty acids, sterols, sterol precursors, and wax esters (WEs). Although the entities composing the first three groups are quite well known, those composing WEs are poorly reported. Therefore, the first step of the present work was to identify WE compounds present in latent print residues deposited by different donors. Of 29 WEs recorded in the chromatograms, seven were observed in the majority of samples.The identified WE compounds were subsequently used in the definition of ratios in combination with squalene and cholesterol to reduce the variability of the initial composition between latent print residues from different persons and more particularly from the same person. Finally, the influence of a latent print enhancement process on the initial composition was studied by analyzing traces after treatment with magnetic powder, 1,2-indanedione, and cyanoacrylate.
fingermark, fingerprint, ageing, wax esters, composition, enhancement, GC/MS, lipid, intra-variability
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