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The role of geography and ecology in shaping repeated patterns of morphological and genetic differentiation between European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) from the Pyrenees and the Alps
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Neutral and selective processes c an drive repeated patterns of evolu tion in dif ferent groups of populationsexp eriencing similar ecol ogica l gradients. In this paper, we used a combinat ion of nucl ear and mitochondrialDNA markers, as well as geometric morphometrics, to investigate repeated patterns of morphological andgenetic divergence of E uropean minnows in two mountain ranges : the Pyrenees and the Al ps. Europeanminnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) are cyprinid ﬁsh i nha bitin g most freshwater bodies in Europe, including those indifferent mountain r anges that could act as major geographical barriers to gene ﬂow. We explored patterns ofP. phoxinus phenotypic and genetic di versi ﬁcation along a gradi ent of alti tude common to the two mountainranges, and tested for isolation by distance (IBD), isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by adaptation(IBA). The results indicated that populations from the Pyr enees a nd the Alps bel ong to two well differentiated,reciprocally monophyletic mt DNA lineages. Substantial genetic differentiation due to geographical isolationwithin and between populations from the Pyrenees and the Alps was also found using rapidly evolving AFLPsmarkers (isolation by distance or IBD), as well as morphological differences between mountain ranges. Als o,morphology varied strong ly with elevation and so did genetic differentiation to a lower extent. Despitemoderate evidence for IBE and IBA, and therefore of repeated evolution, substantial population heterogeneitywas found at the genetic level, suggesting that selection and population speciﬁc genetic drift act in concert toaffect genetic divergence.
AFLP markers, elevation gradient, geometric morphometrics, isolation by adaptation, isolation by distance, isolation by environment, Phoxinus phoxinus, repeated evolution
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