Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Cardiac raptor deletion impairs adaptive hypertrophy, alters metabolic gene expression and causes heart failure in mice
Title of the conference
Stockholm, Sweden, August 28-September 01, 2010
European Heart Journal
Publication type : Meeting Abstract
Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of cell growth, is found in two structurally and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes called mTOR complex (mTORC)1 and mTORC2. The specific roles of each of these branches of mTOR signaling have not been dissected in the adult heart. In the present study, we aimed to bring new insights into the function of cardiac mTORC1-mediated signaling in physiological as well as pathological situations.Methods: We generated mice homozygous for loxP-flanked raptor and positive for the tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (MerCreMer) under control of the α- myosin heavy chain promoter. The raptor gene encodes an essential component of mTORC1. Gene ablation was induced at the age of 10-12 weeks, and two weeks later the raptor cardiac-knockout (raptor-cKO) mice started voluntary cagewheel exercise or were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload.Results: In sedentary raptor-cKO mice, ejection fractions gradually decreased, resulting in significantly reduced values at 38 days (P < 0.001). Raptor-cKO mice started to die during the fifth week after the last tamoxifen injection. At that time, the mortality rate was 36% in sedentary (n = 11) and 64% in exercising (n = 14) mice. TAC-induced pressure overload resulted in severe cardiac dysfunction already at earlier timepoints. Thus, at 7-9 days after surgery, ejection fraction and fractional shortening values were 22.3% vs 43.5% and 10.2% vs 21.5% in raptor-cKO vs wild-type mice, respectively. This was accompanied by significant reductions of ventricular wall and septal thickness as well as an increase in left ventricular internal diameter. Moreover, ventricular weight to tibial length ratios were increased in wild-type, but not in the raptor-cKO TAC mice. Together, this shows that raptor-cKO mice rapidly developed dilated cardiomyopathy without going through a phase of adaptive hypertrophy. Expression of ANP and β-MHC was induced in all raptor-cKO mice irrespective of the cardiac load conditions. Consistent with reduced mTORC1 activity, phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 was blunted, indicating reduced protein synthesis. Moreover, expression of multiple genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism was altered, and followed by a shift from fatty acid to glucose oxidation.Conclusion: Our study suggests that mTORC1 coordinates protein and energy metabolic pathways in the heart. Moreover, we demonstrate that raptor is essential for the cardiac adaptation to increased workload and importantly, also for normal physiological cardiac function.
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