Article: article from journal or magazin.
Chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins: regulation, function and potential vaccine candidates.
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Publication Status: ppublish
Publication Status: ppublish
Pmps (Polymorphic Membrane Proteins) are a group of membrane bound surface exposed chlamydial proteins that have been characterized as autotransporter adhesins and are important in the initial phase of chlamydial infection. These proteins all contain conserved GGA (I, L, V) and FxxN tetrapeptide motifs in the N-terminal portion of each protein. All chlamydial species express Pmps. Even in the chlamydia-related bacteria Waddlia chondrophila, a Pmp-like adhesin has been identified, demonstrating the importance of Pmps in Chlamydiales biology. Chlamydial species vary in the number of pmp genes and their differentially regulated expression during the infectious cycle or in response to stress. Studies have also demonstrated that Pmps are able to induce innate immune functional responses in infected cells, including production of IL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1, by activating the transcription factor NF-κB. Human serum studies have indicated that although anti-Pmp specific antibodies are produced in response to a chlamydial infection, the response is variable depending on the Pmp protein. In C. trachomatis, PmpB, PmpC, PmpD and PmpI were the proteins eliciting the strongest immune response among adolescents with and without pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In contrast, PmpA and PmpE elicited the weakest antibody response. Interestingly, there seems to be a gender bias for Pmp recognition with a stronger anti-Pmp reactivity in male patients. Furthermore, anti-PmpA antibodies might contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, at least among women with PID. In vitro studies indicated that dendritic cells infected with C. muridarum were able to present PmpG and PmpF on their MHC class II receptors and T cells were able to recognize the MHC class-II bound peptides. In addition, vaccination with PmpEFGH and Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) significantly protected mice against a genital tract C. muridarum infection, suggesting that Pmps may be an important component of a multi-subunit chlamydial vaccine. Thus, Pmps might be important not only for the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection, but also as potential candidate vaccine proteins.
Adhesins, Bacterial/metabolism, Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial/blood, Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/chemistry, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics, Bacterial Vaccines/immunology, Chlamydia Infections/immunology, Chlamydia Infections/microbiology, Chlamydia trachomatis/immunology, Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolism, Humans, Immunity, Innate
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