Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Novel active agents in patients with advanced NSCLC without driver mutations who have progressed after first-line chemotherapy
Despite the efficacy of a number of first-line treatments, most patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) experience disease progression that warrants further treatment. In this review, we examine the role of novel active agents for patients who progress after first-line therapy and who are not candidates for targeted therapies. More therapeutic options are needed for the management of patients with NSCLC after failure of first-line chemotherapy. A PubMed search was performed for articles from January 2012 to May 2015 using the keywords NSCLC, antiangiogenic, immunotherapy, second-line, novel therapies and English language articles only. Relevant papers were reviewed; papers outside that period were considered on a case-by-case basis. A search of oncology congresses was performed to identify relevant abstracts over this period. In recent years, antiangiogenic agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been added to our armamentarium to treat patients with advanced NSCLC who have progressed on first-line chemotherapy. These include nintedanib, a triple angiokinase inhibitor; ramucirumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody; and nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab, just three of a growing list of antibodies targeting the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD ligand-1 pathway. Predictive and prognostic factors in NSCLC treatment will help to optimise treatment with these novel agents. The approval of new treatments for patients with NSCLC after the failure of first-line chemotherapy has increased options after a decade of few advances, and holds promise for future evolution of the management of NSCLC.
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