Article: article from journal or magazin.
Identification and staining of distinct populations of secretory organelles in astrocytes.
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, respond to an elevation in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by releasing chemical transmitters (also called gliotransmitters) via regulated exocytosis of heterogeneous classes of organelles. By this process, astrocytes exert modulatory influences on neighboring cells and are thought to participate in the control of synaptic circuits and cerebral blood flow. Studying the properties of exocytosis in astrocytes is a challenge, because the cell biological basis of this process is incompletely defined. Astrocytic exocytosis involves multiple populations of secretory vesicles, including synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs), dense-core granules (DCGs), and lysosomes. Here we summarize the available information for identifying individual populations of secretory organelles in astrocytes, including DCGs, SLMVs, and lysosomes, and present experimental procedures for specifically staining such populations.
Animals, Astrocytes/physiology, Astrocytes/ultrastructure, Exocytosis, Exosomes/chemistry, Exosomes/classification, Humans, Staining and Labeling/methods
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