Article: article from journal or magazin.
Paired Hierarchical Organization of 13-Lipoxygenases in Arabidopsis.
Embryophyte genomes typically encode multiple 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOXs) that initiate the synthesis of wound-inducible mediators called jasmonates. Little is known about how the activities of these different LOX genes are coordinated. We found that the four 13-LOX genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have different basal expression patterns. LOX2 expression was strong in soft aerial tissues, but was excluded both within and proximal to maturing veins. LOX3 was expressed most strongly in circumfasicular parenchyma. LOX4 was expressed in phloem-associated cells, in contrast to LOX6, which is expressed in xylem contact cells. To investigate how the activities of these genes are coordinated after wounding, we carried out gene expression analyses in 13-lox mutants. This revealed a two-tiered, paired hierarchy in which LOX6, and to a lesser extent LOX2, control most of the early-phase of jasmonate response gene expression. Jasmonates precursors produced by these two LOXs in wounded leaves are converted to active jasmonates that regulate LOX3 and LOX4 gene expression. Together with LOX2 and LOX6, and working downstream of them, LOX3 and LOX4 contribute to jasmonate synthesis that leads to the expression of the defense gene VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2). LOX3 and LOX4 were also found to contribute to defense against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Our results reveal that 13-LOX genes are organised in a regulatory network, and the data herein raise the possibility that other genomes may encode LOXs that act as pairs.
jasmonic acid, jasmonate, oxylipin, eicosanoid, wounding, defense, herbivore
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