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Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma vadegatum Fabricius (Ixodidae) II. Receptors outside the Haller's organ capsule
Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology
Bovine odour excites olfactory receptor(s) in a wall-pore olfactory sensillum on the anterior pit of Haller's organ in Amblyomma variegatum. Gas chromatography-coupled electrophysiology recordings from this sensillum reveal the presence of 4 active compounds in bovine odour. The two strongest stimulants were identified as 2-nitrophenol and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, and by matching electrophysiological activity of synthetic analogues. Synthetic analogues of known vertebrate-associated volatiles also stimulate other olfactory receptors in sensilla on the surface of tarsus I: a lactone receptor responding to gamma-valerolactone and 6-caprolactone; different fatty acid receptor types responding best to either pentanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid or to butanoic acid; three receptors responding to NH3; and one receptor responding to 3-pentanone. Gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry analysis of vertebrate volatiles revealed presence of a number of these olfactory stimulants in concentrates of rabbit and steer odour, i.e. 2-methylpropanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, and gamma-valerolactone.
Tick, Hallers Organ, Olfactory Receptors, Fatty Acids, Ammonia, Gamma-Valerolactone, Nitrophenols
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