Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Sanitary quality of edible bivalve mollusks in Southeastern Brazil using an UV based depuration system
Title of the conference
Ocean & Coastal Management
Document Type: Article
The increase in seafood production, especially in mariculture worldwide, has brought out the need of continued monitoring of shellfish production areas in order to ensure safety to human consumption. The purpose of this research was to evaluate pathogenic protozoa, viruses and bacteria contamination in oysters before and after UV depuration procedure, in brackish waters at all stages of cultivation and treatment steps and to enumerate microbiological indicators of fecal contamination from production site up to depuration site in an oyster cooperative located at the Southeastern estuarine area of Brazil. Oysters and brackish water were collected monthly from September 2009 to November 2010. Four sampling sites were selected for enteropathogens analysis: site 1- oyster growth, site 2- catchment water (before UV depuration procedure), site 3 - filtration stage of water treatment (only for protozoa analysis) and site 4- oyster's depuration tank. Three microbiological indicators ! were examined at sites 1, 2 and 4. The following pathogenic microorganisms were searched: Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Human Adenovirus (HAdV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), Human Norovirus (HnoV) (genogroups I and II), JC strain Polyomavirus (JCPyV) and Salmonella sp. Analysis consisted of molecular detection (qPCR) for viruses (oysters and water samples); immunomagnetic separation followed by direct immunofluorescence assay for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts and also molecular detection (PCR) for the latter (oysters and water samples); commercial kit (Reveal-Neogee (R)) for Salmonella analysis (oysters). Giardia was the most prevalent pathogen in all sites where it was detected: 36.3%, 18.1%, 36.3% and 27.2% of water from sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively; 36.3% of oysters from site 1 and 54.5% of depurated oysters were harboring Giardia cysts. The huge majority of contaminated samples were classified as Giardia duodenalis. HAdv was detected in water and o! ysters from growth site and HnoV GI in two batches of oysters ! (site 1) in huge concentrations (2.11 x 10(13), 3.10 x 10(12) gc/g). In depuration tank site, Salmonella sp., HAV (4.84 x 10(3)) and HnoV GII (7.97 x 10(14)) were detected once in different batches of oysters. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were present in 9.0% of water samples from site four. These results reflect the contamination of oysters even when UV depuration procedures are employed in this shellfish treatment plant. Moreover, the molecular comprehension of the sources of contamination is necessary to develop an efficient management strategy allied to shellfish treatment improvement to prevent foodborne illnesses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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