Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Diagnosis and management of blunt great vessel trauma.
Journal of cardiac surgery
181-6; discussion 186-92
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review - Publication Status: ppublish
Traditionally, thoracic aortic rupture, suspected after blunt thoracic trauma, is characterized by a chest radiograph showing a widened mediastinum. The diagnostic machinery consecutively activated still depends heavily on the pressure as additional traumatic lesions. A patient with additional cranio-cerebral trauma would typically undergo contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of head, chest, and other regions. In a number of patients these analyses would confirm the presence of blood in the mediastinum without formal proof of an aortic disruption. This is because mediastinal hematomas may be caused not only by an aortic rupture, but also by numerous other blood sources including fractures of the spine and other macro- and microvascular lesions providing similar images. Therefore, aortic angiography became our preferred diagnostic tool to identify or rule out acute traumatic lesions of not only the aorta but with great vessels. However recently, a number of traumatic aortic transsections have been identified by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). TEE has the additional advantage of being a bed-side procedure providing additional information about cardiac function. The latter analysis allows for identification and quantification of cardiac contusions, post-traumatic myocardial infarctions, and valvar lesions which are of prime importance to develop an adequate surgical strategy and to assess the risk of the numerous emergency procedures required in patients with polytrauma. The standard approach for repair of isthmic aortic rupture is through a lateral thoracotomy. Distal and proximal control of the aorta can be achieved in a substantial number of cases before complete aortic rupture occurs and a higher proportion of direct suture repair can be achieved under such circumstances. Most proximal descending aortic procedures are performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (clamp and go) but paraplegia may occur before, during, or after the procedure. Ascending aortic lesions and disruption of the aortic arch, the supra-aortic vessels, the main pulmonary arteries, the great veins as well as cardiac lesions are best approached through a sternotomy, which may have to be extended. Cardiopulmonary bypass allowing for deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest is often required and carries its own complications. It is not clear whether the increasing proportion of ascending aortic and cardiac lesions which are observed nowadays are due to a change in trauma mechanics (i.e., speed limits, seat belts, air-bags), an improvement of the diagnostic tools or both.
Aorta, Thoracic, Aortic Rupture, Humans, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Wounds, Nonpenetrating
Web of science
Last modification date