Article: article from journal or magazin.
TGF-beta3, but not TGF-beta1, protects keratinocytes against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry
We have examined the role that individual TGF-beta isoforms, and in particular TGF-beta3, play in control of epidermal homeostasis. Mice with a knockout mutation of the TGF-beta3 gene die a few hours after birth. A full-thickness skin grafting approach was used to investigate the postnatal development and homeostatic control of the skin of these mice. Grafted skin of mice with a disruption of the TGF-beta3 gene developed similarly to grafts of wild type and TGF-beta1 knockout animals. However, a strikingly different response was observed after acute treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). When exposed to TPA, the grafted skin of wild type and TGF-beta1 knockout mice underwent a hyperplastic response similar to that of normal mouse skin. In marked contrast, TPA treatment of TGF-beta3 knockout grafts induced widespread areas of keratinocyte cell death. Analysis of cultured keratinocytes treated with purified TGF-beta isoforms revealed that TGF-beta3 plays a direct and specific function in protecting keratinocytes against TPA-induced cell death. The protective function of TGF-beta3 on TPA-induced cell death was not because of general suppression of the signaling pathways triggered by this agent, as ERK1/2 activation occurred to a similar if not greater extent in TGF-beta3-treated versus control keratinocytes. Instead, TGF-beta3 treatment led to a significant reduction in TPA-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity, which was associated and possibly explained by specific counteracting effects of TGF-beta3 on TPA-induced disruption of keratinocyte focal adhesions.
Actins/analysis, Animals, Calcium/metabolism, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism, Cell Death/drug effects, Cells, Cultured, Hyperplasia, JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Keratinocytes/drug effects, Keratinocytes/enzymology, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Rabbits, Skin/drug effects, Skin/growth &, development, Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology, Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
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