Article: article from journal or magazin.
Renovascular responses to high and low perfusate calcium steady-state experiments in the isolated perfused rat kidney with baseline vascular tone.
Journal of Surgical Research
Publication types: In Vitro ; Journal Article
Publication Status: ppublish
Publication Status: ppublish
Acute hypercalcemia is commonly observed in surgical patients after calcium infusion while acute hypocalcemia is common during rapid citrated blood transfusion. Although high and low ionized calcium ([Ca2+]) within the clinical range produce an increase or decrease in cardiac performance and systemic vessel resistance, respectively, their effects on renal vessels have not been quantified. A possible renal vasoconstriction that might occur with high [Ca2+] is of clinical interest because it is a factor which may contribute to impaired renal circulation and decreased function. In this study we examined the renovascular responses to [Ca2+], which was varied within the clinical range under hemodynamically controlled conditions. We instituted high and low [Ca2+] in the per fusate, which consisted of Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing albumin, 60-65 g/liter. Stable high (n = 10) or low (n = 7) [Ca2+] (1.93 +/- 0.02 and 0.59 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively) was instituted for 10 min and preceded and followed by normal [Ca2+] of the same duration. In a separate protocol (n = 8) verapamil (10(-5) M) was added to the perfusate 10 min before high [Ca2+] was tested. We measured changes in renal flow at a constant perfusion pressure of 110 mm Hg and also characterized the renal vessels over a range of pressures by pressure vs flow plots. High [Ca2+] was associated with a small decrease in flow (from 28.8 +/- 2.4 to 26.9 +/- 2.6 ml/min/g, P < 0.02), indicating a small vasopressor effect. This effect was also shown by a leftward shift in the pressure vs flow plots. These changes were prevented by verapamil. GFR decreased (from 0.35 +/- 0.04 to 0.28 +/- 0.06 ml/min/ g, P < 0.01) without a significant change in sodium excretion or fractional sodium excretion. Low [Ca2+] was associated with increased renal flow (from 30.8 +/- 2.1 to 35.2 +/- 2.7 ml/min/g, P < 0.02), indicating a vasodilator effect. This effect was also shown by a rightward displacement of the pressure vs flow plots. GFR increased from 0.51 +/- 0.03 to 0.56 +/- 0.04 ml/min/ g, P < 0.01, as did sodium excretion (from 2.32 +/- 0.22 to 3.87 +/- 0.49 microEq/min, P < 0.01) and fractional sodium excretion (from 2.33 +/- 0.26 to 3.61 +/- 0.49%, P < 0.01). We conclude, first, that in the isolated perfused rat kidney, high [Ca2+] is a weak vasopressor while low [Ca2+] has vasodilator action. Second, high [Ca2+] effects are abolished by verapamil pretreatment. These findings illuminate mechanisms of high [Ca2+] effects on renovascular tone.
Animals, Calcium/pharmacology, Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects, Homeostasis, Male, Natriuresis/drug effects, Osmolar Concentration, Perfusion, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Renal Circulation/drug effects, Verapamil/pharmacology
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