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Cutaneous b-cell lymphomas of follicular and marginal zone types: use of Bcl-6, CD10, Bcl-2, and CD21 in differential diagnosis and classification.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Cutaneous follicular lymphomas (FLs) and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas of extranodal marginal zone (MZL)/mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type may have morphologic overlap, despite the fact that they are thought to be of distinct derivation (germinal center vs. postgerminal center). The problem is compounded by the reported absence of bcl-2 expression by many cutaneous FLs, leading to speculation that cutaneous FL may be unrelated to nodal FL. The authors analyzed the expression of the germinal center-associated antigens bcl-6 and CD10 and of bcl-2 in 18 cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (10 FLs and eight MZLs), in relationship to CD21+ follicular structures, to clarify the relationship of nodal to cutaneous FLs and to explore the value of these antigens in differential diagnosis. The authors studied 10 cutaneous FLs (seven primary and three secondary) and eight MZLs (six primary and two secondary). The FLs (found in six men and four women age 45-75 years) involved the trunk (n = 3) and scalp, face and neck (n = 7). The MZLs (found in five women and three men age 34-81 years) involved the trunk (n = 4), face and neck (n = 2), and arm (n = 2). Immunostaining for CD21, bcl-6, CD10, and bcl-2 allowed the delineation of compartments within the tumors and yielded distinct patterns of staining in FL and MZL. In both follicular and interfollicular/diffuse areas of FL the neoplastic cells were bcl-6+ (10 of 10), often CD10+ (seven of 10, four of seven primary), and bcl-2+ (nine of 10, six of seven primary). Only three of seven cases (one of five primary) had bcl-2 rearrangement detectable by polymerase chain reaction. In the MZLs, the neoplastic B-cells were bcl-6-, CD10-, and bcl-2+ (eight of eight). Three patterns of CD21+ follicles were identified in MZL: reactive germinal centers, uniformly bcl-6+, CD10+, and bcl-2- (five of eight MZLs); colonized follicles, both bcl-6-, bcl-2+, and L26+ cells, and bcl-6+ and bcl-2- cells (five of eight MZLs); and expanded/colonized follicular dendritic cell meshworks, bcl-6- and bcl-2+ B cells with rare residual bcl-6+ and bcl-2- cells (four of eight MZLs). The authors conclude that cutaneous FLs express bcl-6 uniformly, usually express CD10 and bcl-2, and have a follicular pattern similar to nodal FL and consistent with a germinal center origin. The immunophenotype of cutaneous FL is distinct from that of cutaneous MZL, which is negative for bcl-6 and CD10. Colonized follicles in MZL, identified by CD21+ follicular dendritic cell meshworks, contained numerous bcl-6- and bcl-2+ B cells, and were readily distinguished from neoplastic follicles in FL. Conversely, CD21- interfollicular and diffuse areas in FLs contained bcl-6+ and CD10+ cells, which were not seen in diffuse areas of MZLs. Thus, the combination of bcl-2, bcl-6, and CD21 staining is useful for the distinction of cutaneous MZL from cutaneous FL.
Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, DNA-Binding Proteins/analysis, Diagnosis, Differential, Female, Humans, Lymphoma, B-Cell/pathology, Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/chemistry, Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/pathology, Lymphoma, Follicular/chemistry, Lymphoma, Follicular/pathology, Male, Middle Aged, Neprilysin/analysis, Proto-Oncogene Proteins/analysis, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/analysis, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6, Receptors, Complement 3d/analysis, Skin Neoplasms/chemistry, Skin Neoplasms/pathology, Transcription Factors/analysis, Zinc Fingers
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