Article: article from journal or magazin.
Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry determination of phthalic acid in human urine as a biomarker of folpet exposure.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Publication types: Evaluation Studies ; Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: ppublish
Agricultural workers are exposed to folpet, but biomonitoring data are limited. Phthalimide (PI), phthalamic acid (PAA), and phthalic acid (PA) are the ring metabolites of this fungicide according to animal studies, but they have not yet been measured in human urine as metabolites of folpet, only PA as a metabolite of phthalates. The objective of this study was thus to develop a reliable gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to quantify the sum of PI, PAA, and PA ring-metabolites of folpet in human urine. Briefly, the method consisted of adding p-methylhippuric acid as an internal standard, performing an acid hydrolysis at 100 °C to convert ring-metabolites into PA, purifying samples by ethyl acetate extraction, and derivatizing with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoro acetamide prior to GC-MS analysis. The method had a detection limit of 60.2 nmol/L (10 ng/mL); it was found to be accurate (mean recovery, 97%), precise (inter- and intra-day percentage relative standard deviations <13%), and with a good linearity (R (2) > 0.98). Validation was conducted using unexposed peoples urine spiked at concentrations ranging from 4.0 to 16.1 μmol/L, along with urine samples of volunteers dosed with folpet, and of exposed workers. The method proved to be (1) suitable and accurate to determine the kinetic profile of PA equivalents in the urine of volunteers orally and dermally administered folpet and (2) relevant for the biomonitoring of exposure in workers.
Biological Markers/urine, Fungicides, Industrial/metabolism, Fungicides, Industrial/urine, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods, Humans, Occupational Exposure/analysis, Phthalic Acids/urine, Phthalimides/metabolism, Phthalimides/urine
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