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Effects of season, sex and body size on the feeding ecology of turtle-headed seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) on IndoPacific inshore coral reefs
Sylvain Dubey & Claire Goiran contributed equally to this work
In terrestrial snakes, many cases of intraspecific shifts in dietary habits as a function of predator sex and body size are driven by gape-limitation - and hence, are most common in species that feed on relatively large prey, and exhibit a wide body-size range. Our data on seasnakes reveal an alternative mechanism for intraspecific niche partitioning, based on sex-specific seasonal anorexia induced by reproductive activities. Turtle-headed seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) on coral reefs in the New Caledonian Lagoon feed entirely on the eggs of demersal-spawning fishes. DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) on eggs that we palpated from stomachs of 37 snakes showed that despite this ontogenetic-stage specialization, the prey come from a taxonomically diverse array of species including damselfish (41% of samples, at least 5 species), blennies (41%, 4 species) and gobies (19%, 5 species). The composition of snake diets shifted seasonally (with damselfish dominating in winter but not summer), presumably reflecting seasonality of fish reproduction. That seasonal shift affects male and female snakes differently, because reproduction is incompatible with foraging. Adult female seasnakes ceased feeding when they became heavily distended with developing embryos in late summer, and males ceased feeding while they were mate-searching in winter. The sex divergence in foraging habits may be amplified by sexual size dimorphism; females grow larger than males, and larger snakes (of both sexes) feed more on damselfish (which often lay their eggs in exposed sites) than on blennies and gobies (whose eggs are hidden within narrow crevices). Specific features of reproductive biology of coral-reef fish (seasonality and nest type) have generated intraspecific niche partitioning in these seasnakes, by mechanisms different from those that apply to terrestrial snakes.
Cost of reproduction, Dietary specialist, Oophagy, Predation, Sexual dimorphism
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