Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
New diagnostic strategies in the detection and staging of bladder cancer.
Current Opinion in Urology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bladder cancer is a very frequent disease and represents the second most common genitourinary neoplasm. The most prevalent form of the disease, superficial bladder cancer, can recur in more than 70% of cases, despite correct management. Any way to improve our disease diagnostic and treatment policy is therefore welcome.RECENT FINDINGS: This review covers the following topics: (1). endoscopic tools: standard cystoscopy versus fluorescence cystoscopy and virtual endoscopy; (2). bladder cancer staging: histopathological analysis developments and imaging techniques (positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography); (3). cytology and ancillary procedures (ImmunoCyt and fluorescence in-situ hybridization test, and others); (4). first-generation (bladder tumour antigen, nuclear matrix protein 22, telomerase repeat amplification protocol) and second-generation (loss of heterozygosity, minichromosome maintenance 5, DNA methylation, microsatellite) urine and serum markers. SUMMARY: New diagnostic and therapeutic (endoscopic) tools in superficial bladder cancer should eventually modify our disease management policy. Fluorescence cystoscopy detects carcinoma in situ with a high accuracy, and seems to have a positive impact on reducing residual tumour and recurrence rate. A more specific staining of tissue specimens facilitates histological analysis and helps achieve better staging, especially in T1 diseases. Improving the sensitivity of cytology for low-grade diseases, ancillary procedures to classic cytology such as fluorescence in-situ hybridization and ImmunoCyt tests, may reduce the number of unpleasant cystoscopies in surveillance protocols of selected groups of patients. Second-generation urine markers such as loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite, minichromosome maintenance 5, with a high level of accuracy, show great potential for influencing bladder cancer detection and screening policy.
Diagnostic Techniques, Urological, Humans, Neoplasm Staging/methods, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis
Web of science
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