Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Chemokine receptor trio: CXCR3, CXCR4 and CXCR7 crosstalk via CXCL11 and CXCL12.
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Publication Status: ppublish
Although chemokines are well established to function in immunity and endothelial cell activation and proliferation, a rapidly growing literature suggests that CXC Chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR4 and CXCR7 are critical in the development and progression of solid tumors. The effect of these chemokine receptors in tumorigenesis is mediated via interactions with shared ligands I-TAC (CXCL11) and SDF-1 (CXCL12). Over the last decade, CXCR4 has been extensively reported to be overexpressed in most human solid tumors and has earned considerable attention toward elucidating its role in cancer metastasis. To enrich the existing armamentarium of anti-cancerous agents, many inhibitors of CXCL12-CXCR4 axis have emerged as additional or alternative agents for neo-adjuvant treatments and even many of them are in preclinical and clinical stages of their development. However, the discovery of CXCR7 as another receptor for CXCL12 with rather high binding affinity and recent reports about its involvement in cancer progression, has questioned the potential of "selective blockade" of CXCR4 as cancer chemotherapeutics. Interestingly, CXCR7 can also bind another chemokine CXCL11, which is an established ligand for CXCR3. Recent reports have documented that CXCR3 and their ligands are overexpressed in different solid tumors and regulate tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to consider the interactions and crosstalk between these three chemokine receptors and their ligand mediated signaling cascades for the development of effective anti-cancer therapies. Emerging evidence also indicates that these receptors are differentially expressed in tumor endothelial cells as well as in cancer stem cells, suggesting their direct role in regulating tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. In this review, we will focus on the signals mediated by this receptor trio via their shared ligands and their role in tumor growth and progression.
Web of science
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