Article: article from journal or magazin.
Rapid assay of intrinsic radiosensitivity based on apoptosis in human CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Journal Article --- Old month value: May 1
PURPOSE: An assay for radiosensitivity has numerous applications in the clinic. Avoidance of acute responses, prediction of normal tissue toxicity, and individualization of patient radiotherapy are included among these. We have developed a rapid assay (about 24 h) able to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes based on radiation-induced apoptosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fresh blood samples (1-2 ml in heparinized tubes) were irradiated with 0-, 2-, and 8-Gy X rays at a dose rate of approximately 3 Gy/min. Following irradiation, the cells were collected and prepared for flow-cytometric analysis and cell sorting. In conjunction with the CellQuest software available with the FACSVantage cell sorter (Becton-Dickinson), two T-lymphocyte types were analyzed on the basis of their cell-specific antigens (CD4 and CD8), and DNA was stained with DAPI. Following the separation of these cell types, radiation-induced cell death was assessed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by gradual degradation of internucleosomal DNA which results in a sub-G1 peak on the DNA histogram, and by the associated loss of surface antigens causing an intermediate positive peak in the antibody histogram. Using the assay, we investigated the interdonor variation in a cohort of 45 healthy adult blood donors and 5 children [one had immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies syndrome (ICF), and one had ataxia telangiectasia (AT)]. Intradonor variation was assessed with 10 different experiments from a single donor. RESULTS: CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte radiosensitivities were correlated (r = 0.63 and 0.65 for 2 and 8 Gy, respectively) in 45 adult donors. Both for CD4 and CD8 cells, 2 and 8 Gy irradiation responses showed a good correlation (r = 0.77 for both). Interdonor variation was significantly higher than intradonor variation (p < 0.0005) for all CD4 and CD8 data. We observed a decrease in the antigen fluorescence of dying cells, a phenomenon referred to as antigen-ebb. Antigen-ebb was clearly observed in both cell types, and correlated significantly with cytotoxicity. A trend was observed between radiosensitivity and donor age, but there was no correlation for gender. Blood from a 4-year-old girl presenting with ICF demonstrated compromised radiation-induced cytotoxicity in her CD4 T-lymphocytes, and an 11-year-old boy presenting with AT demonstrated compromised radiation-induced cytotoxicity in both his CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the assay provides a rapid means of determining radiosensitivity, can discriminate differences in radiation-induced cytotoxicity between individuals, and can be used as a rapid screen for genetically hypersensitive patients. Antigen-ebb offers interesting possibilities for molecular biological investigations, permitting characterization and isolation of abnormal but vital cells in the absence of clastogenic agents.
Adult Apoptosis/*radiation effects CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*radiation effects CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*radiation effects Child Child, Preschool Female Humans Male *Radiation Tolerance
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